Sunday, February 19, 2012



Probably after reading this document we will realize that in our country or many countries in the world, public and private sector fails to meet almost any of the obligations that are supposed to guarantee to citizens "Humanity will not enjoy security without development, and will not to enjoy development without security, but will not enjoy either, if it does not respects human rights, "Kofi Annan Former Secretary of the UN. Human rights are common practice standards of principles, laws, human rights conventions, but they are developing some are a a full aspiration and are not immediately realizable, and others are maintained only in very complex set of issues or ideas.

Types of human rights:

First generation

1. Civil and political human rights (fundamental, natural, inherent and inalienable and cannot be taken away from people, such as the right to life, liberty, justice and freedom of expression).

Second generation:

2. Economic and social rights and cultural

a. What are the economic and social rights?
Human rights are based on the principles of dignity and freedom. Both are severely compromised when humans cannot meet their basic needs. Economic and social rights are there to ensure that each person is given the conditions under which they are able to meet their basic needs. In particular, economic and social rights including:

i. The right to education that allows all persons to participate effectively in a free society and goes to the full development of human personality
ii. The right to freedom from hunger Food and ensuring access to safe and nutritious
iii. The right to health by ensuring the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, including access to care, nutrition and water and clean air.
iv. The right of access to housing to ensure a safe, secure, habitable, accessible and free to forced evictions.
v. The right to social security to ensure that all people regardless of age or ability to work with the means to purchase basic goods and services.
vi. The right to work guaranteed the opportunity to have a decent and compliance with safe and healthy conditions, with fair wages that provide a decent life for himself and his family. It also establishes the unemployment freedoms and the right to organize.

b. Where are the economic and social rights protected?

Economic and social rights are protected by a wide range of international and regional instruments, including the declarations and covenants. Human rights declarations represent a commitment of signatory countries to comply with human rights said. Covenants, also known as treaties or conventions are international law agreements signed by governments. Once the agreements or treaties are ratified they become part of domestic law.
Declarations and conventions that protect the economic and social rights include:

- Universal Declaration of Human Rights
- International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural
- The Convention on the Rights of the Child
- The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
- The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women
- The American Declaration on the Rights and Duties of Man

c. What are the obligations of governments in the Rules for Economic and Social Rights?

Respect: Governments must respect human rights, which mean that a government cannot interfere with a person exercising their human rights. For example, a government violates the obligation to respect human rights when school officials expel a student from public school for arbitrary reasons, such as pregnancy or homelessness, or when a government policy prohibits access medical services or medications such as birth control, or when a government engages in massive evictions of public housing residents, for the "development" without obtaining adequate alternative housing for residents. In all these cases, the actions of government prevented people from exercising human rights (education, health, housing).

Protect: Governments must protect human rights. When private actors (ie, a person or a company or institution that is not part of government) impair the exercise of human rights, the government must intervene to protect those rights. For example, if the factories are imposing operating conditions for employees who violate the right to work for a living wage and reasonable terms, the government is forced to intervene and protect the right to work.

Meet: Governments must comply with human rights. What this means is that the government should create conditions enabling all citizens to exercise their human rights. For example, everyone is entitled to medical care. However, many people in this country USA cannot afford health insurance (and do not qualify for Medicaid). 50 million people are in this situation. The government is obliged to create conditions that make affordable health care regardless of payment, for example through the provision of a public insurance program funded and managed care that guarantees universal, equal high quality. By maintaining the link between payment and access to care, the government has fulfilled its obligation to guarantee the right to medical care.

d. What the U.S. has made commitments under international law to ensure economic and social rights?

The United States, as one of the main drafters of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, was one of the first countries to commit themselves to protecting social and economic rights under human rights. Since then, the U.S. has been recalcitrant in meeting its promise to the people within its borders. United States has signed but not ratified the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the Convention on the Rights of the Child. By signing these treaties, the United States have at least agree not to violate the spirit and intent of treaties, but has not fully engaged with human rights standards contained therein. The United States has ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, which prohibits discrimination in the economic and social, but does not guarantee economic and social rights.
By virtue of his membership in the Organization of American States, the United States is bound by the regional law of the American Declaration on the Rights and Duties of Man, which fully protects social and economic rights. However, despite the rulings of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights and Human Rights Commission concluded that the Declaration is binding on all Member States, the United States consistently rejected this position and states that it is legally obliged to maintain the Declaration.

Third generation

3. Rights groups: environmental rights and development, some of these are (contradictory) such as self-determination.
Human rights and law, have been advancing through natural rights and humanitarian mostly by custom. Protection and human rights, the protection of the state been developed to protect its citizens. To ensure the security and human rights, human rights also born under the necessity of ensuring peace and security among nations.
Human rights and international humanitarian law. Human rights were also born under the eaves of the practice of international humanitarian law sustainably established by the founder of the Red Cross in Genoa in order to have a way of conduct in the war. But World War II failed completely all orders, international codes and conventions that had been created to conduct in war, as well as the ability to protect minorities and nationalities; this led to the direct creation of the United Nations and the universal declaration of human rights. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations and was signed on December 10, 1948, which is said to be the "conscience of the world", this is the most translated document in the world. In the overall context of the document covers the right to life, liberty, security, freedom from torture and the right of free movement as well as the right of free expression under Article 19, also makes clear that all individuals have a right to be born and are not simply subject or apparatus of state. The Universal Declaration was followed by two legal agreements the first international agreement on civil and political rights and second by the international agreement on economic, social and cultural rights. Collectively form the basis of the international protection of human rights, and collectively they form the basis of international human rights protection is generally known as the "international bill of rights."

Government Bonds
The first is immediate, and the second progressive realization: The first is the obligation to respect, obligations to protect and the obligation to enforce these, also the obligation to enforce non-discrimination and international obligations. But statements and all agreements are one thing but how these rights are properly monitored and guaranteed?. The rights of the United Nations are a process monitored based on reports or reports submitted by countries to the United Nations. All UN bodies and are rationed for human rights, the main being the Commission for Human Rights United Nations Human Rights Council and the UN:

The 7 treaties and bodies that are monitoring all of these are:
1. Committee on Economic Social and Cultural
2. Human rights committee
3. Committee against Torture
4. Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination
5. Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women
6. Committee on the Rights of Children
7. Committee on the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Their Families
Many people including staff within the united nations generally are looking for new ways to monitor processes and implementations of these agreements, the work of NGOs non-governmental agencies is highly recognized and appreciated but many believe that the media have much to do and more particularly to help those countries where the media are in trouble.
Remember that as Eleanor Roosevelt said, respect for universal human rights begins in "small places, close to home." She recognized that ultimately, the protection and promotion of human rights is "IN YOUR HANDS!", sometimes are so close that we cannot see them on the maps of the world, then they are a world of individuals, who are in the neighborhoods, these schools, those universities, people that  attends the factory, field or office where he or she works. Sometimes, human rights are cries in silence.


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