Sunday, February 19, 2012

Economia y Negocios Globales: ECONOMICS AND HUMAN RIGHTS

Economia y Negocios Globales: ECONOMICS AND HUMAN RIGHTS: ECONOMICS AND HUMAN RIGHTS Probably after reading this document we will realize that in our country or many countries in the world, public...



Probably after reading this document we will realize that in our country or many countries in the world, public and private sector fails to meet almost any of the obligations that are supposed to guarantee to citizens "Humanity will not enjoy security without development, and will not to enjoy development without security, but will not enjoy either, if it does not respects human rights, "Kofi Annan Former Secretary of the UN. Human rights are common practice standards of principles, laws, human rights conventions, but they are developing some are a a full aspiration and are not immediately realizable, and others are maintained only in very complex set of issues or ideas.

Types of human rights:

First generation

1. Civil and political human rights (fundamental, natural, inherent and inalienable and cannot be taken away from people, such as the right to life, liberty, justice and freedom of expression).

Second generation:

2. Economic and social rights and cultural

a. What are the economic and social rights?
Human rights are based on the principles of dignity and freedom. Both are severely compromised when humans cannot meet their basic needs. Economic and social rights are there to ensure that each person is given the conditions under which they are able to meet their basic needs. In particular, economic and social rights including:

i. The right to education that allows all persons to participate effectively in a free society and goes to the full development of human personality
ii. The right to freedom from hunger Food and ensuring access to safe and nutritious
iii. The right to health by ensuring the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, including access to care, nutrition and water and clean air.
iv. The right of access to housing to ensure a safe, secure, habitable, accessible and free to forced evictions.
v. The right to social security to ensure that all people regardless of age or ability to work with the means to purchase basic goods and services.
vi. The right to work guaranteed the opportunity to have a decent and compliance with safe and healthy conditions, with fair wages that provide a decent life for himself and his family. It also establishes the unemployment freedoms and the right to organize.

b. Where are the economic and social rights protected?

Economic and social rights are protected by a wide range of international and regional instruments, including the declarations and covenants. Human rights declarations represent a commitment of signatory countries to comply with human rights said. Covenants, also known as treaties or conventions are international law agreements signed by governments. Once the agreements or treaties are ratified they become part of domestic law.
Declarations and conventions that protect the economic and social rights include:

- Universal Declaration of Human Rights
- International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural
- The Convention on the Rights of the Child
- The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
- The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women
- The American Declaration on the Rights and Duties of Man

c. What are the obligations of governments in the Rules for Economic and Social Rights?

Respect: Governments must respect human rights, which mean that a government cannot interfere with a person exercising their human rights. For example, a government violates the obligation to respect human rights when school officials expel a student from public school for arbitrary reasons, such as pregnancy or homelessness, or when a government policy prohibits access medical services or medications such as birth control, or when a government engages in massive evictions of public housing residents, for the "development" without obtaining adequate alternative housing for residents. In all these cases, the actions of government prevented people from exercising human rights (education, health, housing).

Protect: Governments must protect human rights. When private actors (ie, a person or a company or institution that is not part of government) impair the exercise of human rights, the government must intervene to protect those rights. For example, if the factories are imposing operating conditions for employees who violate the right to work for a living wage and reasonable terms, the government is forced to intervene and protect the right to work.

Meet: Governments must comply with human rights. What this means is that the government should create conditions enabling all citizens to exercise their human rights. For example, everyone is entitled to medical care. However, many people in this country USA cannot afford health insurance (and do not qualify for Medicaid). 50 million people are in this situation. The government is obliged to create conditions that make affordable health care regardless of payment, for example through the provision of a public insurance program funded and managed care that guarantees universal, equal high quality. By maintaining the link between payment and access to care, the government has fulfilled its obligation to guarantee the right to medical care.

d. What the U.S. has made commitments under international law to ensure economic and social rights?

The United States, as one of the main drafters of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, was one of the first countries to commit themselves to protecting social and economic rights under human rights. Since then, the U.S. has been recalcitrant in meeting its promise to the people within its borders. United States has signed but not ratified the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the Convention on the Rights of the Child. By signing these treaties, the United States have at least agree not to violate the spirit and intent of treaties, but has not fully engaged with human rights standards contained therein. The United States has ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, which prohibits discrimination in the economic and social, but does not guarantee economic and social rights.
By virtue of his membership in the Organization of American States, the United States is bound by the regional law of the American Declaration on the Rights and Duties of Man, which fully protects social and economic rights. However, despite the rulings of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights and Human Rights Commission concluded that the Declaration is binding on all Member States, the United States consistently rejected this position and states that it is legally obliged to maintain the Declaration.

Third generation

3. Rights groups: environmental rights and development, some of these are (contradictory) such as self-determination.
Human rights and law, have been advancing through natural rights and humanitarian mostly by custom. Protection and human rights, the protection of the state been developed to protect its citizens. To ensure the security and human rights, human rights also born under the necessity of ensuring peace and security among nations.
Human rights and international humanitarian law. Human rights were also born under the eaves of the practice of international humanitarian law sustainably established by the founder of the Red Cross in Genoa in order to have a way of conduct in the war. But World War II failed completely all orders, international codes and conventions that had been created to conduct in war, as well as the ability to protect minorities and nationalities; this led to the direct creation of the United Nations and the universal declaration of human rights. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations and was signed on December 10, 1948, which is said to be the "conscience of the world", this is the most translated document in the world. In the overall context of the document covers the right to life, liberty, security, freedom from torture and the right of free movement as well as the right of free expression under Article 19, also makes clear that all individuals have a right to be born and are not simply subject or apparatus of state. The Universal Declaration was followed by two legal agreements the first international agreement on civil and political rights and second by the international agreement on economic, social and cultural rights. Collectively form the basis of the international protection of human rights, and collectively they form the basis of international human rights protection is generally known as the "international bill of rights."

Government Bonds
The first is immediate, and the second progressive realization: The first is the obligation to respect, obligations to protect and the obligation to enforce these, also the obligation to enforce non-discrimination and international obligations. But statements and all agreements are one thing but how these rights are properly monitored and guaranteed?. The rights of the United Nations are a process monitored based on reports or reports submitted by countries to the United Nations. All UN bodies and are rationed for human rights, the main being the Commission for Human Rights United Nations Human Rights Council and the UN:

The 7 treaties and bodies that are monitoring all of these are:
1. Committee on Economic Social and Cultural
2. Human rights committee
3. Committee against Torture
4. Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination
5. Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women
6. Committee on the Rights of Children
7. Committee on the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Their Families
Many people including staff within the united nations generally are looking for new ways to monitor processes and implementations of these agreements, the work of NGOs non-governmental agencies is highly recognized and appreciated but many believe that the media have much to do and more particularly to help those countries where the media are in trouble.
Remember that as Eleanor Roosevelt said, respect for universal human rights begins in "small places, close to home." She recognized that ultimately, the protection and promotion of human rights is "IN YOUR HANDS!", sometimes are so close that we cannot see them on the maps of the world, then they are a world of individuals, who are in the neighborhoods, these schools, those universities, people that  attends the factory, field or office where he or she works. Sometimes, human rights are cries in silence.


Saturday, February 18, 2012

Economia y Negocios Globales: ECONOMIA Y DERECHOS HUMANOS

Economia y Negocios Globales: ECONOMIA Y DERECHOS HUMANOS: ECONOMIA Y DERECHOS HUMANOS Probablemente después de leer este documento nos daremos cuenta que en nuestro país, el sector público y priv...



Probablemente después de leer este documento nos daremos cuenta que en nuestro país, el sector público y privado no cumple con casi ninguna de las obligaciones que estamos supuestos a garantizar a la ciudadanía "La humanidad no va a disfrutar de seguridad sin desarrollo, y no va a disfrutar de desarrollo sin seguridad; pero no va disfrutar ninguna de las dos, si no respeta los derechos humanos”, Kofi Annan Ex Secretario de las ONU, los derechos humanos son estándares de prácticas comunes, leyes convenciones sobre los derechos humanos, pero ellos se están desarrollando algunos llenos de aspiración y que no son inmediatamente realizables, y otros se mantienen solamente en ideas muy complejas.

Tipos de derechos humanos:

Primera generación

1. Derechos Humanos políticos y civiles (fundamentales, naturales, inherentes e inalienables no pueden ser tomados y apartados de las personas, como por ejemplo el derecho a la vida, libertad, justicia y libertad de expresión).

Segunda generación:

2. Derechos económicos y sociales y culturales
a. ¿Qué son los derechos económicos y sociales?
Los derechos humanos se basan en los principios de la dignidad y la libertad. Ambos están seriamente comprometidos cuando los seres humanos no pueden satisfacer sus necesidades básicas. Derechos económicos y sociales garantizar que cada persona se otorga las condiciones bajo las cuales son capaces de satisfacer sus necesidades básicas. En particular, los derechos económicos y sociales incluyen:

i. El derecho a la educación que permite a todas las personas para participar efectivamente en una sociedad libre y se dirige hacia el pleno desarrollo de la personalidad humana
ii. El derecho a la libertad de Alimentos de hambre y garantizar el acceso a alimentos sanos y nutritivos
iii. El derecho a la salud asegurando el más alto nivel posible de salud física y mental, incluido el acceso a la atención, nutrición y agua y aire limpios.
iv. El Derecho de acceso a la vivienda asegurando a un hogar seguro, seguro, habitable, accesible y con la libertad de los desalojos forzosos.
v. El derecho a la seguridad social que garantice que todas las personas independientemente de su edad o capacidad de trabajar con los medios necesarios para adquirir bienes y servicios básicos.
vi. El derecho al trabajo garantiza la oportunidad de tener un trabajo digno y el cumplimiento de las condiciones seguras y saludables, con un salario justo que ofrezcan una vida digna para sí mismo ya su familia. También establece la liberta de desempleo y el derecho a organizarse.

b. ¿Dónde están los derechos económicos y sociales protegidos?

Derechos económicos y sociales están protegidos por una amplia gama de instrumentos internacionales y regionales, incluyendo las declaraciones y pactos. Declaraciones de derechos humanos representan un compromiso de los países signatarios a cumplir con las normas de derechos humanos afirmó. Pactos, también conocido como tratados o convenciones, son acuerdos de derecho internacional suscritos por los gobiernos. Una vez que los convenios o tratados son ratificados pasan a formar parte del derecho interno.
Declaraciones y convenios que protegen los derechos económicos y sociales incluyen:

-   La Declaración Universal de los Derechos Humanos
-   El Pacto Internacional de Derechos Económicos, Sociales y Culturales
-   La Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño
-   La Convención sobre la Eliminación de Todas las Formas de Discriminación Racial
-   La Convención sobre la Eliminación de Todas las Formas de Discriminación contra la Mujer
-   La Declaración Americana sobre los Derechos y Deberes del Hombre

c. ¿Qué obligaciones tienen los gobiernos en las Normas de Derechos Económicos y Sociales?

Respeto: Los gobiernos deben respetar los derechos humanos, lo que significa que un gobierno no puede interferir con una persona el ejercicio de sus derechos humanos. Por ejemplo, un gobierno viola la obligación de respetar los derechos humanos cuando los funcionarios de la escuela expulsar a un estudiante de una escuela pública por motivos arbitrarios, tales como el embarazo o la falta de vivienda, o cuando una política de gobierno prohíbe el acceso a los servicios médicos o medicamentos, tales como control de la natalidad , o cuando un gobierno se dedica a los desalojos masivos de los residentes de viviendas públicas en aras del "desarrollo" sin obtener una vivienda alternativa adecuada para los residentes. En todos estos casos, las acciones de gobierno impidió que las personas de ejercer los derechos humanos (educación, salud, vivienda).

Proteger: Los gobiernos deben proteger los derechos humanos. Cuando los actores privados (es decir, una persona o una empresa o institución que no forma parte del gobierno) poner en peligro el ejercicio de los derechos humanos, el gobierno debe intervenir para proteger esos derechos. Por ejemplo, si las fábricas están imponiendo las condiciones de explotación a los empleados que violen el derecho al trabajo por un salario adecuado y en condiciones razonables, el gobierno está obligado a intervenir y proteger el derecho al trabajo.

Cumplir: Los gobiernos deben cumplir con los derechos humanos. Lo que esto significa es que el gobierno debe crear las condiciones que permitan a todos los ciudadanos puedan ejercer sus derechos humanos. Por ejemplo, toda persona tiene derecho a recibir atención médica. Sin embargo, muchas personas en este país USA no pueden pagar un seguro médico (y que no califican para Medicaid). Más de 50millones de personas en esta situación. El gobierno está obligado a crear las condiciones que hacen que la atención médica accesible, independientemente de pago, por ejemplo mediante la prestación de un programa de seguro público financiado y administrado que garantiza la atención universal, igual de alta calidad. Al mantener el vínculo entre el pago y acceso a la atención, el gobierno de ha cumplido con su obligación de garantizar el derecho a recibir atención médica.

d. ¿Qué compromisos ha hecho los EE.UU. bajo el Derecho Internacional para garantizar derechos económicos y sociales?

Los Estados Unidos, como uno de los redactores principales de la Declaración Universal de los Derechos Humanos, fue uno de los primeros países que se comprometan a proteger los derechos económicos y sociales en el marco de los derechos humanos. Desde entonces, los Estados Unidos ha sido recalcitrante en el cumplimiento de su promesa a la gente dentro de sus fronteras. Estados Unidos ha firmado pero no ratificado el Pacto Internacional de Derechos Económicos, Sociales y Culturales y la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño. Con la firma de estos tratados, los Estados Unidos tienen a un mínimo acuerdo en no violar el espíritu y propósito de los tratados, pero no ha de comprometerse plenamente con las normas de derechos humanos que contienen. Los Estados Unidos han ratificado la Convención sobre la Eliminación de Todas las Formas de Discriminación Racial, que prohíbe la discriminación en las esferas económica y social, pero no garantiza los derechos económicos y sociales.
En virtud de su pertenencia a la Organización de Estados Americanos, los Estados Unidos está obligado por la ley regional de la Declaración Americana sobre los Derechos y Deberes del Hombre, que protege plenamente los derechos económicos y sociales. Sin embargo, a pesar de las sentencias de la Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos y la Comisión Interamericana de Derechos Humanos conclusión de que la Declaración es vinculante para todos los Estados miembros, los Estados Unidos consistentemente rechaza esta posición y afirma que no está legalmente obligado a mantener la Declaración.

Tercera generación

3. Derechos de grupos: derechos ambientales y de desarrollo, alguno de estos son (contradictorios) como por ejemplo la autodeterminación.
Los derechos humanos y la ley, han ido avanzando a través de derechos naturales humanitarios y sobre todo por las costumbres. Protección y derechos humanos, la protección del estado a ido desarrollándose para proteger a sus ciudadanos. Velar por la seguridad y los derechos humanos, los derechos humanos también han nacido bajo la necesidad de asegurar la paz y seguridad entre las naciones.

Los derechos humanos y el derecho humanitario internacional. Los derechos humanos también nacieron bajo el alero de la práctica del derecho internacional humanitario establecido sustentablemente por su fundador de la Cruz Roja en Génova para poder tener una manera de conducta en la Guerra. Pero la Segunda Guerra Mundial falló completamente todas las órdenes, códigos internacionales y convenciones que se habían creado para conducir en la guerra, como también la habilidad de proteger a las minorías y las nacionalidades, esto llevó a la directa creación de las Naciones Unidas y a la declaración universal de los derechos humanos. La declaración universal de derechos humanos fue adoptado por la Asamblea General de las naciones unidas y fue firmada en diciembre 10 de 1948, la cual se dice que es la “conciencia del mundo”, este es el documento más traducido en el planeta. En el contexto global del documento, cubre el derecho a la vida, a la libertad, a la seguridad, la libertad de la tortura y al el derecho de libre movimiento como también a el derecho de la libre expresión el Artículo 19, deja claro también que todos los individuos tienen un derecho a nacer y que no son simplemente sujetos o aparatos del Estado. La declaración universal fue seguida por dos acuerdos legales el primero el acuerdo internacional sobre derechos políticos y civiles y segundo por el acuerdo internacional sobre derechos económicos, sociales y culturales. Colectivamente forman la base de la protección internacional de los derechos humanos, y colectivamente ellos forman la base internacional de los derechos humanos para su protección generalmente son conocido como la “carta de derechos internacional”.

Obligaciones del Estado

La primera es inmediata, y la segunda de realización progresiva:

La primera es la obligación a respeto, obligación de proteger y la obligación de hacer cumplir estas, también hacer cumplir la obligación a la no discriminación y a las obligaciones internacionales. Pero las declaraciones y todos los acuerdos son una cosa pero ¿Como son estos derechos monitoreados y garantizados apropiadamente?. Los derechos de las Naciones Unidas es un proceso monitoreado en base a los informes o reportes enviados por los países a las Naciones Unidas. Todos los cuerpos de la ONU y que se racionan a los derechos humanos, los principales son la Comisión para los derechos humanos de las Naciones Unidas y el Consejo derechos humanos de la ONU:

Los 7 tratados y cuerpos que está monitoreando todo estos son:

1. Comité sobre derechos económicos sociales y culturales
2. Comité de derechos humano
3. Comité en contra de la tortura
4. Comité sobre la eliminación de la discriminación racial
5. Comité sobre la eliminación de discriminación en contra de las mujeres
6. Comité sobre los derechos de los niños
7. Comité sobre los derechos de todos los trabajadores inmigrantes y miembros de sus familias

Mucha gente incluyendo personal dentro de las naciones unidas generalmente están buscando nuevas maneras de monitorear los procesos y las implementaciones de estos acuerdos, el trabajo de las agencias no gubernamentales ONG es altamente reconocido y apreciado pero muchos creen que los medios de prensa tienen mucho que hacer y mucho más para ayudar en particular en aquellos países en que los medios de prensa tienen problemas.
Como dijo Eleaonor Roosevelt en referencia a reportar por los derechos "donde después de todo los derechos humanos universales comienzan, en pequeños lugares, cerca de casa, alguna veces están tan cerca que no los podemos ver en los mapas del mundo, entonces ellos son un mundo de personas individuales; que están en las vecindades en las cuales en uno de esos colegios o en una de esas universidades, que uno asiste, en la fábrica, en el campo o en la oficina donde él o ella trabajan"

Los DDHH son a veces gritos en el silencio.


Monday, February 13, 2012

Economia y Negocios Globales: A Dialogue about Economics and Human Rights by B. ...

Economia y Negocios Globales: A Dialogue about Economics and Human Rights by B. ...: Important to consider: "The majority of UN bodies have stated a commitment to a rights-based approach to development that defines progress i...

A Dialogue about Economics and Human Rights by B. Javalquinto/ J Atuahene

Important to consider: "The majority of UN bodies have stated a commitment to a rights-based approach to development that defines progress in terms of the fulfilment of social, political, economic, cultural and civil rights. Societies that do not create the conditions for their citizens to realise these rights cannot be said to be ‘developed’"
Seymour, Dan

John Atuahene Lawyer (LL.M)True development of any state must embrace economic, social, legal and cultural aspects of the lives of people. Very often in the pursuit of economic growth the challenges and disadvantages which have detrimental impacts on the lives of people are ignored and emphasis is only placed on the opportunities and advantages arising therefrom. There are numerous examples of this situation across the world. For example in Brazil due to economic development vast areas of land have been deforested each year. The deforestation has had, among other things, a major climate biodiversity and also threatened communities who depend on the forest for food, water and livelihood. Opportunities and advantages arising from the deforestation cannot be defined as development with respect to only the progress brought about in the economy but should also be defined in terms of socio-economic impacts including any impact on the environment. Another example is the oil drilling projects carried out in Nigeria in pursuit of economic development. Notwithstanding opportunities and advantages which have arisen from the oil drilling projects there has been oil pollution in Agbada Westplain of Niger Delta. This oil pollution has impacted on the environment negatively and also had negative impact on the lives of people.

Inevitably pursuit of economic development gives rise to challenges which underpins consequential detrimental impacts on the lives of people. These challenges can only be effectively and efficiently addressed by complying with international human rights. It is only by operating within the human rights normative framework that the requisite environmental standards and compliance of international human rights can be achieved.

It is not always the case that violations of human rights can be linked to the consequences of economic development. Violations of human rights may be due to cultural, political or domestic forces. For example in certain communities in Pakistan, India and Malaysia, contrary to human rights, it is their culture for females at certain ages when they are young to undergo female genital mutilation. In certain countries such as Somalia where there is ongoing armed conflict due to political differences this has resulted in violations of human rights. Due to certain domestic forces in some countries such as Iran and Saudi Arabia some of their laws are not consistent with human rights. Certain ingrained attitudes and habits of some states may be inconsistent with standards within human rights regime. It is not uncommon to have an economically developed state such as France guilty of violations of human rights from time to time due to various reasons. The challenge posed by adopting a right-based approach to development is to identify an objective and acceptable parameters for evaluating violations of human rights against evaluations of economic achievements. Besides the underlying factors of economic achievements and violations of human rights may be inseparable. The proposed right-based approach to development is by no means going to be easy and requires a carefully thought out system based on assessing development on objective parameters. A definition of development or progress of a country is empty unless there are objective parameters by which a country can be assessed to be developed or not developed in accordance with the definition.

Bernardo Javalquinto, Economist, MBAI see many other violations of human rights, For example abuses in the financial system, monopolies controling markets, Political Power control by few people not allowing the mayority of people decide, control of the media, but worst of all is allowing poor educatition, education is important but also is the education of principles that many people lack at homomust also be given somewhere. So we must create a manner that a universal transfer of principles must be trasmitted all over the world. Then we will not see what is discribe above..... Thanks John

John Atuahene Lawyer (LL.M)I totally agree with you Bernardo. Arguably modernity has evolved to an extent that one can safely say that we now have interdependent sovereignty of states. Sovereignty of a state, these days, can only be defined in relationship with other states. Within the context of international community, state values must be consistent with international human rights. However there are other actors in addition to states in respect of human rights responsibilities. Corporations as well as states must comply with human rights. A lot of violations of human rights arise from the multinational activities of corporations.

With regard to the financial sector, since the system is built on capitalism it is not unfortunately susceptible to changes to cater for the poor. The monopolies, political power control by few people, media which you have mentioned are inevitable consequences of the capitalist system. The capitalist system is effectively under control of the rich and very often governments through legislation have been unable to exert any control or any required changes. The ideal situation is for human rights to be universally complied with by states, corporations and all individual human beings including in particular the rich. It has to be said that the adverse effects of capitalist system to some extent are reduced by charitable donations from individuals and the work of charitable organizations.

John Atuahene Lawyer (LL.M)In so far as compliance with human rights by corporations are concerned one cannot solely rely on the responsibility of corporations to comply with human rights-some corporations will develop reasonable policies and procedures for ensuring that human rights are complied with during the course of their activities while other corporations will fail to comply with human rights. In addition to this policies and procedures developed by corporations will vary. The need for universal compliance with human rights necessitates an adoption of universal policies and procedures acceptable to all nations and corporations for ensuring compliance with human rights by corporations. In the same vein state policies and procedures for ensuring compliance with human rights will vary in the absence of an adopted universal policies and procedures. The need for such universal policies and procedures is justified by the fact that multinational activities cross boundaries of states. With regard to individuals they will either voluntarily comply with human rights or be compelled to do so within the legal systems of their residence provided the laws of the relative states are consistent with international human rights.

It is comforting to hear about "human development index". It is hoped the assumptions and factors upon which the index are based and measured are realistic and effective.

Bernardo Javalquinto, Economist, MBAI did look into the "human development index" but it does not fit with our realiality, with unfair income didtribution Chele could not be among with the Very high human development countries something os not being mesuared correctly and I could se other countries in the same situation. Either we/us are not seen reality or the organizations don´t wont to see it. A universal observer must play an important role.

Bernardo Javalquinto, Economist, MBADuring his visit to Chile Pier Carlo Papoan, OECD Chief Economist said: "the growing inequality is one of the biggest issues facing the world, in the OECD Chile is the country with greater inequality." Abdur, I also agree with you my call is we as Economist must stop abuses from the sistem. In labor, environmental isssues, education JUSTICE, concentration of power economic and political. people is getting tired of this abuses. If the UN does not support countries crying for help who does. Because the institutions in your own country are allowing this to happen and this is not only in Chile. I see prof. Yunus promoting Social Business which i think would be one of the solutions but he also needs a lot of help.

John Atuahene Lawyer (LL.M)Economic distribution via appropriate fiscal policies and taxation coupled with spending programs geared towards the benefit of the poor can go a long way to bridging gap between the rich and the poor if they can be successfully implemented. However history has shown that it is not always easy to achieve this. Governments who have tried to do this have become unpopular and have had to change their policies particularly to please rich people and corporations who in response to the policies very often threaten to divert much needed capital and business elsewhere. There have been many examples of this situation across the world. For example, in recent years President Barack Obama has had to compromise a lot by changing his fiscal policies in order to prevent capital diversion and business by corporations from U.S. Once again the gap between the rich and the poor is an inevitable inherent ingredient of the capitalist system. Economic distribution has not been effectively, adequately and successfully pursued in any economically developed country within the environment of capitalist system.

With regard to public services such as education, health etc governments have to operate within financial constraints. Governments are expected to make provisions for minimum adequate public services which satisfy standards contained in international instruments. However it has to be said that individuals who can afford better services than that provided by the governments do opt out because equivalent services privately provided are available and of higher quality than that of the governmenst. The issue therefore is not just the governments providing public services which will benefit the poor but whether or not the public services provided by the governments are of the same level of quality as similar services provided in the private sector. Once again the gap between the rich and the poor is inevitable.

There are many countries in the world which are unable to meet standards contained in international instruments for providing public services because of mainly poverty although other minor factors may be involved. For example a lot of African countries are in this area of poverty. Some African countries rely heavily on the work of charitable organizations, NGOs and UN humanitarian organizations. However the efforts of these organizations are not enough to bridge the gap between the rich and the poor.The gap between the rich and the poor continue to widen. All the injustices are inevitable inherent ingredients of the capitalist system despite the efforts from organizations addressing the relative adverse effects. Yunus attempts to promote Social Business is a step in the right direction but this is unfortunately a drop in the ocean.

Bernardo Javalquinto, Economist, MBAA drop in the ocean is something, but what if in all continents we can find people like us that are tremendously involve in mattrs like this we could definetly do something about it. In the mean time I would like to ask permission to all of you to publish this in my blog only with your permission. Kind regards Bernardo

John Atuahene Lawyer (LL.M)Yes if all continents can find people like Yunus that will be a tremendous help. You have my permission to publish.

Friday, February 10, 2012

Economia y Derechos Humanos / Human Rights and Economics

Human rights theorists and economists have tended to talk past, rather than to, each other, especially in the field of development. On one level this is to be expected. Human rights theory adopts a normative, deontological approach, while economists see their discipline as a positive science and are comfortable with its consequentialism. But a closer look at the relationship suggests more complementarities. Human rights theory can help provide a normative framework that avoids some of the pitfalls of welfare theory, and can help economists deal with issues of exploitation and power relations. These complementarities have increased in importance as the development discourse incorporates legal and political issues previously considered beyond the scope of economists and development practitioners.

Teóricos de los derechos humanos y economistas han tendido a hablar del pasado, en lugar de, entre sí, sobre todo en el campo del desarrollo. En un nivel, esto es de esperar. La Teoría de los derechos humanos adopta la normativa, deontológica, mientras que los economistas ven su disciplina como una ciencia positiva y se sienten cómodos con su consecuencialismo. Pero con una mirada más de cercana, la relación sugiere ser más la complementariedad que lo contrario. Teoría de los derechos humanos puede ayudar a proporcionar un marco normativo que evita algunos de los escollos de la teoría del bienestar, y puede ayudar a los economistas abordar las cuestiones de las relaciones de explotación y el poder. Estas complementariedades han aumentado en importancia como el discurso del desarrollo incorporando aspectos legales y políticos que antes se consideraban fuera del alcance de los economistas y profesionales del desarrollo.

"The majority of UN bodies have stated a commitment to a rights-based approach to development that defines progress in terms of the fulfilment of social, political, economic, cultural and civil rights. Societies that do not create the conditions for their citizens to realise these rights cannot be said to be ‘developed’"

"La mayoría de los organismos de la ONU han manifestado un compromiso con un enfoque basado en los derechos de desarrollo que define el progreso en términos del cumplimiento de los sociales, políticos, económicos, culturales y civiles rights.2 Las sociedades que no crean las condiciones para que sus ciudadanos realización de estos derechos no puede decirse que 'desarrollado' "

Seymour, Dan, Human Rights and Economics: The Conceptual Basis for Their Complementarity. Development Policy Review, Vol. 26, No. 4, pp. 387-405, July 2008. Available at SSRN:"
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